Craig Bennett, did an interesting experiment with a dead salmon. He assessed the ability of the fish to identify emotions in photographs presented to him. Yes, you got it right. He used functional magnetic resonance imaging for measuring brain activity while he showed a dead fish photos of people in social situations and asked him (the salmon) to identify the emotions people were experiencing and he got results.
He presents a valid lesson about false positives. Actually, he won the Ig Nobel Prize in 2012 with his work: Neural Correlates of Interspecies Perspective Taking in the Post-Mortem Atlantic Salmon: An Argument For Proper Multiple Comparisons Correction.
So, in scientific reasoning, you’ll always deal with error measurement, be it false positives or false negatives. However, one thing that differentiates scientific reasoning from other types of reasoning is accounting for error by acknowledging it, measuring it and correcting it as much as you can.